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Indonesian: Nasal, Lateral, Tap, and Glides


Nasals

/m/

makan 'to eat'

/makan/

[ˈmãkan]

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Seeing

/n/

nakal 'naughty'

/nakal/

[ˈnãkal]

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Seeing

/ɲ/

nyiur 'coconut leaves'

/ɲiuɾ/

[ˈɲĩũr]

Listen

Seeing
  nyaman 'healthy' /ɲaman/ [ɲãmãn] Listen Seeing

/ŋ/

ngarai 'cliff'

/ŋaɾai/

[ˈŋãɾaj]

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Seeing
      or [ŋãɾe]    
  ngeri 'horrible' /ŋeɾi/ [ˈŋẽɾi] Listen Seeing
  comparison:nyaman and ngarai Seeing

Lateral

/l/

lama 'longtime'

/lama/

[ˈlamã]

Listen

Seeing
  pasal 'paragraph or section' /pasal/ [ˈpasal] Listen Seeing

Tap

/ɾ/1

raja 'king'

/ɾadʒa/

[ˈradʒa]

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Seeing
  dari 'from' /daɾi/ [ˈdaɾi] Listen Seeing
  pasar 'market' /pasaɾ/ [ˈpasar] Listen Seeing

Glides

/j/

yakin 'to be certain'

/jakin/

[ˈjakɪn]

Listen

Seeing
  kaya 'rich' /kaja/ [ˈkaja] Listen Seeing

/w/

waktu 'time'

/waktu/

[ˈwak̚tu]

Listen

Seeing
  Jawa 'Java' /dʒawa/ [ˈdʒawa] Listen Seeing

1 In Indonesian, /ɾ/ is an alveolar tap [ɾ] word-medially and varies between a [ɾ] and an alveolar trill [r] word-finally. Word-initially or syllable-initially in a stressed syllable, it is usually [r]. In Malay, /r/ is uvular fricative word-initially and medially and is elided word-finally.


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